Scotland generally has cool summers, mild winters and rain falls throughout the year. Changes in our climate over the next few decades are unavoidable because of the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere.
When viewed over long-term averages, we expect the UK to experience more milder wetter winters and more hotter drier summers in the future. These changes in climate and their effect on our weather will have major implications for our way of life.
Greenhouse effect - Met Office - State of the UK climate
The infographic explores the difference between weather and climate, what drives our climate and how our climate is changing - View the full infographic at the Met Office - What is climate change?
Scotland's climate trends handbook (published in 2014) describes the changes in weather patterns experienced in Scotland over the last century.
View Scotland’s climate trends data below.
The UK Climate Change Projections (UKCP09) provide the latest indications of the likely scenarios for Scotland's projected climate,
The interactive graph below shows UKCP09 data specifically for Scotland (the data is up to date as of September 2012). Choose to display and use projections over land for different parameters:
Official statistics publication (June 2016) containing the results of the Scottish greenhouse gas inventory for 1990-2014. A key tool for understanding the origins and magnitudes of the emissions and the assessment of policies designed to control or reduce emissions.
Chart B1. Sources of Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2014. Values in MtCO2e - The Scottish Government
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report Climate Change 2013: The physical science basis confirms that since the late 19th century the atmosphere and ocean have warmed, amounts of snow and ice have diminished, the sea level has risen, and concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased.
Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since.
ClimateXChange have produced three short briefs that summarise the reports on:
NASA conducts a program of breakthrough research on climate science. It runs programs to obtain and convert data from defense department and NOAA satellites as well as from certain European, Japanese and Russian satellites. NASA also sponsors field experiments to provide "ground truth" data to check space instrument performance and to develop new measurement.
Taking a global perspective on Earth's climate - NASA Global Climate Change: Vital signs of the plant
NASA has more than a dozen Earth science spacecraft/instruments in orbit studying all aspects of the Earth system (oceans, land, atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere), with several more planned for launch in the next few years.
With 197 Parties, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has near universal membership and is the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by 192 of the UNFCCC Parties. The ultimate objective of both treaties is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
The Second Report on Proposals and Policies 2013 to 2027 sets out how Scotland can deliver statutory annual targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (set through the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009).
Scotland’s soils contain large amounts of organic matter. It is important to manage soils carefully to ensure the carbon stays in the soils and does not escape into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. View the distribution of carbon and peatland classes across the whole of Scotland on Scotland’s soils website.
Scottish Government have developed a tool to calculate the carbon savings from wind farms on Scottish peatlands.
Scotland's National Peatland Plan (2015) - highlights the major contribution peatlands make to Scotland. Peatlands occur throughout the country, with many bogs and fen. As stores of carbon they are supremely important in helping to tackle climate change. See Scottish Natural Heritage's website for further information on Action for Peatlands - including videos and guidance.
Farming for a better climate – provides practical support to benefit the farm and help reduce our impact on the climate. Taking action as a sector, both to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to a changing climate, will secure farm viability for future generations.
The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 makes a commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions in Scotland by 80% of 1990 levels by 2050 with an interim target of a 42% cut by 2020 . The Act sets a framework for action in Scotland to reduce emissions as well as adapt to a changing climate.
For a further information on all Scottish primary and secondary climate change legislation – Climate change legislation
SEPA regulates a wide range of industries and organisations whose activities generate emissions of greenhouse gases. SEPA is Scotland’s national flood forecasting, flood warning and strategic flood risk management authority.
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ClimateXChange - provides independent advice, research and analysis to support the Scottish Government as it develops and implements policies on adapting to the changing climate and the transition to a low carbon society.
Committee on Climate Change - an independent, statutory body established to advise the UK Government and Devolved Administrations on emissions targets and report to Parliament on progress made in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and preparing for climate change.
Forestry Commission Scotland (FCS) - has an ambitious target to extend woodland cover in Scotland by an additional 100,000ha over the period 2012-2022. This would lock up around 4 million tonnes of extra carbon dioxide by 2027, whilst also providing a range of other environmental, economic and social benefits.
Historic Environment Scotland- is working on projects to mitigate emissions from our own operations, adapt our buildings and make our activities more sustainable. The organisation also supports the public and partners by providing advice and publishing research on measures to: improve energy efficiency in traditional buildings; adapt traditional buildings to the changing climate.
Met Office - the UK's national weather service and a centre of excellence in weather and climate science.
Resource Efficient Scotland - offers free advice and technical support as well as the sharing of best practices and new technologies. Embedding resource efficiency within Scottish organisations makes a significant contribution to the achievement of the Scottish Government’s strategic economic objectives, climate change, energy efficiency and zero waste targets.
Scotland’s 2020 Climate Group - a business-led initiative which provides leadership and insight and stimulates collaboration across industry, commerce, government and civic society to work towards a collective vision of meeting Scotland’s ambitious carbon reduction targets and sustainable economic development.
Scotland’s 2050 Climate Group - aims to lead a social movement by engaging, educating and empowering Scotland’s Future Leaders to take action on climate change.
Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) - works with the Scottish and UK governments and the other UK environmental regulators to implement and enforce national legislation and European directives that aim to reduce emissions and improve energy efficiency. SEPA also participates in the development and revision of guidance, policy and legislation to tackle climate change.
Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) - works with others to reduce climate change impacts of managing land and sea, safeguarding nature, enjoying the outdoors.
Sustainable Scotland Network (SSN) - works to improve Scottish public sector performance on sustainability and climate change. The Network is supported and coordinated by Keep Scotland Beautiful.
The Scottish Government - recognises climate change will have far reaching effects on Scotland's economy, its people and its environment and is determined to play its part in tackling climate change.